The Humanure Handbook: A Guide to Composting Human Manure, Third Edition
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
The 10th Anniversary Edition of the most comprehensive, up-to-date and thoroughly researched book on the topic of composting human manure available anywhere. It includes a review of the historical, cultural and environmental issues pertaining to "human waste," as well as an in depth look at the potential health risks related to humanure recycling, with clear instructions on how to eliminate those dangers in order to safely convert humanure into garden soil. Written by a humanure composter with over thirty years experience, this classic work now includes illustrated, step-by-step instructions on how to build a "$25 humanure toilet," a chapter on alternative graywater systems, photos of owner-built humanure toilets from around the world, and an overview of commercial composting toilets and systems.
what the shovel is to the laborer, and what the truck is to the truckdriver.” 4 In general, composting is a process managed by humans involving the cultivation of microorganisms that degrade and transform organic materials while in the presence of oxygen. When properly managed, the compost becomes so heavily populated with thermophilic microorganisms that it generates quite a bit of heat. Compost microorganisms can be so efficient at converting organic material into humus that the phenomenon is
so, why does it now appear dead? Could a lifeform on its surface have proliferated so abundantly and so recklessly that it altered the planet’s atmosphere, thereby knocking it off-kilter and destroying it? Is that what’s happening to our own planet? Will it be our legacy in this solar system to leave behind another lonely, dead rock to revolve around the sun? Or will we simply destroy ourselves while the Earth, stronger than her Martian brother, overcomes our influence and survives to flourish
another billion years — without us? The answer, if I may wildly speculate, is neither — we will destroy neither the Earth nor ourselves. Instead, we will learn to live in a symbiotic relationship with our planet. To put it simply, the human species has reached a fork in the road of its evolution. We can continue to follow the way of disease-causing pathogens, or we can chart a new course as dependent and respectful inhabitants on this galactic speck of dust we call Earth. The former requires only
years27 in soil, depending on the source of the information. Consequently, the eggs of the roundworm seem to be the best indicator for determining if parasitic worm pathogens are present in compost. In China, current standards for the agricultural reuse of humanure require an Ascaris mortality of greater than 95%. Ascaris eggs develop at temperatures between 15.50C (59.90° F) and 350C (950 F), but the eggs disintegrate at temperatures above 380C (100.40° F).28 The temperatures generated during
the water, reported as the number of coliforms per 100 ml. Such a test measures all species of the coliform group and is not limited to species originating in warm-blooded animals. Since some coliform species come from the soil, the results of this test are not always indicative of fecal contamination in a stream analysis. However, this test can be used for ground water supplies, as no coliforms should be present in ground water unless it has been contaminated by a warmblooded animal. Fecal