Nutrition and the Female Athlete: From Research to Practice
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Designed to address the nutritional needs of women over the age of 18 who partake in sports on a regular basis, Nutrition and the Female Athlete: From Research to Practice highlights nutritional concerns specific to active women. It discusses the link between nutrition and athletic performance and translates research into practical applications for health, fitness, and nutrition professionals.
The book addresses gender differences in substrate utilization and the implications for how these differences might translate into different macronutrient requirements for female athletes. It covers vitamins and minerals that are often lacking in the diets of female athletes and presents special considerations for individuals with disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone-mineral density.
(BCOAD), the rate-limiting enzyme for muscle branchedchain amino acid oxidation. Basal activation of BCOAD was found to be lower in women than in men; however, the activation was similar between the sexes after exercise (McKenzie et al. 2000). There have been studies showing differences in amino acid kinetics during different phases of the menstrual cycle. Specifically, research Substrate Utilization in Female Athletes 15 has shown that urinary urea nitrogen excretion was higher during the
Carbohydrate-rich food with a moderate to high glycemic index (GI) provide a readily available source of substrate for glycogen synthesis. This may be important in situations where maximum glycogen storage is required in the hours after an exercise bout. Adequate energy intake is needed to optimize glycogen storage; the restrained eating practices of some athletes interferes both with meeting targets for carbohydrate intake and optimizing glycogen storage from this intake. Foods with a low GI
Australia Pamela Hinton, PhD University of Missouri–Columbia Columbia, Missouri Dara L. LoBuono New York University New York, New York Anne B. Loucks, PhD Department of Biological Sciences Ohio University Athens, Ohio Amy C. Maher, MSc, PhD University of Guelph Guelph, Ontario, Canada Melinda M. Manore, PhD, RD, FACSM Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon Nancy R. Rodriguez, PhD, RD, FACSM, CSSD University of Connecticut Storrs, Connecticut Kristine Spence, MS, RD, CSSD Utah Dairy Council
Saunders, P. U. 2005. Effect of carbohydrate intake on half-marathon performance of well-trained runners. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 15: 573–589. Campbell, S. E., Angus, D. J., and Febbraio, M. A. 2001. Glucose kinetics and exercise performance during phases of the menstrual cycle: Effect of glucose ingestion. American Journal of Physiology 281: E817–25. Carter, J. M., Jeukendrup, A. E., and Jones, D. A. 2004a. The effect of carbohydrate mouth rinse on 1-h
level, body size, and temperature acclimatization as well as the external environment all play more significant roles in fluid and sodium requirements. As per the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines, fluid and sodium requirements must be based on individual assessments of the athlete’s fluid and sodium losses with the goal of avoiding both dehydration and excess fluid ingestion (and perhaps EAH). Moreover, even though most general fluid and sodium replacement guidelines found