Essentials of Assessing, Preventing, and Overcoming Reading Difficulties (Essentials of Psychological Assessment)
David A. Kilpatrick
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Practical, effective, evidence-based reading interventions that change students' lives
Essentials of Understanding and Assessing Reading Difficulties is a practical, accessible, in-depth guide to reading assessment and intervention. It provides a detailed discussion of the nature and causes of reading difficulties, which will help develop the knowledge and confidence needed to accurately assess why a student is struggling. Readers will learn a framework for organizing testing results from current assessment batteries such as the WJ-IV, KTEA-3, and CTOPP-2. Case studies illustrate each of the concepts covered. A thorough discussion is provided on the assessment of phonics skills, phonological awareness, word recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension. Formatted for easy reading as well as quick reference, the text includes bullet points, icons, callout boxes, and other design elements to call attention to important information.
Although a substantial amount of research has shown that most reading difficulties can be prevented or corrected, standard reading remediation efforts have proven largely ineffective. School psychologists are routinely called upon to evaluate students with reading difficulties and to make recommendations to address such difficulties. This book provides an overview of the best assessment and intervention techniques, backed by the most current research findings.
- Bridge the gap between research and practice
- Accurately assess the reason(s) why a student struggles in reading
- Improve reading skills using the most highly effective evidence-based techniques
Reading may well be the most important thing students are taught during their school careers. It is a skill they will use every day of their lives; one that will dictate, in part, later life success. Struggling students need help now, and Essentials of Understanding and Assessing Reading Difficulties shows how to get these students on track.
spring of first grade with 74 students who were at risk for reading difficulties. They represented the lowest 9% of students who did poorly on letter names, letter sounds, and basic phonological awareness in a kindergarten screening the year before. The intervention consisted of intensive phonemic awareness training, systematic instruction in phonics, and the opportunity to read connected text. By the end of the 15-week intervention, 67% of these most severely at-risk students scored at or above
Do children self-teach? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 95, 56–77. Cunningham, A. E., Perry, K. E., Stanovich, K. E., & Share, D. L. (2002). Orthographic learning during reading: Examining the role of self-teaching. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 82, 185–199. Cunningham, A. E., Perry, K. E., Stanovich, K. E., & Stanovich, P. J. (2004). Knowledge of K-3 teachers and their knowledge calibration in the domain of early literacy. Annals of Dyslexia, 54, 139–167. Cunningham, A. E.,
whereas others have the letter's sound embedded in the letter's name (e.g., f, l, m; ef, el, em), and still other letters have sounds not contained in the letter's name (e.g., h, w, y). Letters that contain their sound in the initial position in their names are more easily learned than those whose sounds are second in the letter name or not in the name at all (Cardoso-Martins et al., 2011; Share, 2004b; Treiman, Tincoff, & Richmond-Welty, 1996; Treiman, Weatherston, & Berch, 1994). This indicates
preschoolers could read any basic words or sound out any nonsense words, they still used letter name knowledge to “map” sounds in spoken words to printed sequences. For example, they would present the students with 15 two-letter sequences (e.g., KN, TM) as words to be learned. All letter sequences had three different pronunciations counterbalanced across students (each student was exposed to only one pronunciation of each sequence). One involved a word in which the first two phonemes of the word
reading: There is simply no aspect of word-level reading that is unaffected by phonological skills (Ahmed et al., 2012; Halderman et al., 2012). This is why the phonological-core deficit is far and away the most common reason why children struggle in word-level reading (Ahmed et al. 2012; Fletcher et al., 2007; Hulme & Snowling, 2009; Vellutino et al., 2004). We now turn to the relationship between word-reading development and the phonological-core deficit of reading disabilities. How the