Building Expertise: Cognitive Methods for Training and Performance Improvement
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This third edition of the classic resource, Building Expertise draws on the most recent evidence on how to build innovative forms of expertise and translates that evidence into guidelines for instructional designers, course developers and facilitators, technical communicators, and other human performance professionals. Ruth Colvin Clark summarizes psychological theories concerning ways instructional methods support human learning processes. Filled with updated research and new illustrative examples, this new edition offers trainers evidence-based guidelines to help them accelerate genuine expertise within their organizations.
more or less the same? Or might novices do better than the master players? If superior memory capacity accounted for the better performance of master chess players, they should still do better than novices with the random board. However, if prior experience accounted for their better performance, then with a meaningless board, they would lose their advantage. The results were somewhat surprising! As you can see in Figure 5.4, master players did worse than novices! Working Memory Capacity
instructions as opposed to when using the diagram. The parallel connections are relatively complex. They involve three resistors of three different values and four connections that need to be made in a complex sequence. When reading textual directions like these, the performer needs to translate the words into a spatial representation in order to complete the task. You can short-cut this unproductive mental work by representing this type of content with figures and diagrams rather than with
San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer. Clark, R.C., & Mayer, R.E. (2008). e-Learning and the science of instruction (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer. Schnotz, W., & Kurschner, C. (2007). A reconsideration of cognitive load theory. Educational Psychology Review, 19, 469-508. Sweller, J. (2005). Implications of cognitive load theory for multimedia learning. In R.E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning. New York: Cambridge University Press. CHAPTER 7 TOPICS
relationships among concepts in a concept map by drawing lines among the listed concepts and indicating whether the relationships were positive or negative by labeling the lines. Most of the research on prior knowledge has measured recall or comprehension of a text reading following question-answering activities. We need more research that evaluates the effectiveness of various types of pre-work assignments (not just questions) that precede diverse instructional environments (not just text
example. I use the term explicit encoding methods because they stimulate visible learner activity. I discuss explicit encoding methods in Chapter 10. In contrast, implicit encoding methods promote learning in ways that do not involve overt learner activity. For example, viewing a relevant graphic that corresponds with text promotes Table 9.1. Implicit vs. Explicit Methods for Building Mental Models learning by stimulating the formation of more than one memory code—one visual and one