An Introduction to Computer Graphics for Artists
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An Introduction to Computer Graphics for Artists is an application-independent, reader-friendly primer for anyone with a serious desire to understand 3D Computer Graphics. Written by a veteran of the computer graphics industry whose previous career included film animation and various spells as Art Director for video games, Andrew Paquette draws on his experiences both as an artist and a manager. Far too often artists, even professionals, lack a basic understanding of the principles of computer graphics. The result is inefficiency and lower quality of work. This book addresses these issues by providing fundamental information in a university course format, with theoretical material, detailed illustrations, and projects to test the reader’s understanding of the concepts covered.
Opening with the first and most basic elements of computer graphics, the book rapidly advances into progressively more complex concepts. Each of the elements, however simple, are important to understand because each is an essential link in a chain that allows an artist to master any computer graphics application. With this accomplished, the artist can use technology to satisfy his goals, instead of the technology being master of the artist.
All students wanting to learn more about computer graphics from an artistic viewpoint, particularly those intending to pursue a career in computer game design or film animation, will find this book invaluable.
This is important to artists, because observation errors lead to likeness errors. A likeness error is anything that negatively A. Paquette, An Introduction to Computer Graphics for Artists, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4471-5100-5_3, © Springer-Verlag London 2008, 2013 37 3 38 Observation Skills and CG affects your model’s resemblance to the target. Professional artists are expected to be able to create a likeness as a minimum job requirement. If a model is not a good likeness of the target subject,
that are absolute. A car may have rust on a chrome fender. The rust reflects light one way and the chrome reflects it another. The difference between how each material reflects light is consistent and measurable. The actual “color” of either object may be impossible to ascertain without light, but a reasonable estimate may be made using the tools provided in any CG application. To determine the diffuse color of an object, one must first keep in mind how light affects color and then strip out
expedition took more than a month to complete, and after it was over, the 255,000 photographs and measurements they gathered had to be organized. The cost of gathering reference and taking measurements on that scale can exceed the total budget for smaller projects, like the development budget for a video game. This means that CG artists must often make do with less than perfect reference, or an incomplete set of measurements. To get acceptable fit for use results despite this limitation, it is
at Pixar: CPU & GPU, brave and beyond. In ACM SIGGRAPH Asia 2012. Singapore: ACM. Chapter 9 Validation of CG Models 9.1 Introduction A cobweb may be defined with the same clarity and strength as a newly built suspension bridge and it should be if it is to be rendered correctly. In the same way, a simple white cardboard box can be constructed so sloppily that it is impossible to import into a game engine, or render for a single frame of animation. No matter what you make, it must be clean.
undistorted, you may get a misaligned texture (Fig. 9.25). Depending on the reason this error appears on your model, it can be a more or less serious error. If the mistake is due to whitespace in your texture border, it is easy to fix in an image-editing program by cropping the texture map. If it is due to incorrect texture coordinates, they must be reprojected or edited. 9.4.7 Origin Offset During the modeling process, you may move your model away from the global origin (Fig. 9.26). If you